1. This is a revised version of a paper presented at the 72nd Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association, Sept. 7, 1977, Chicago.

2. Salvador de Madariaga and Jayaprakash Narayan, "Blueprint for a World Commonwealth" in Perspectives on Peace 1910-1960 (N. Y.: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Praeger, 1960) pp. 47-64, esp. pp. 60-63. (Earlier version, "Toward the Ideal Federation", The New Leader, July 18, 1960, pp. 17-20. Reprinted as "A World Peace Guard", Fellowship, May 1, 1961, pp. 4-5).

3. In other manuscripts I have described these all at greater length. Gene Keyes, "Force Without Firepower: A Survey of Ideas for a Doctrine of Unarmed Military Service" (Unpublished senior thesis, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, 1971) 337 pp. Condensed version presented as paper at Annual Meeting of American Political Science Association, August 31, 1974 (28pp.). [Published in 1982 in CoEvolution Quarterly (later, Whole Earth Review), #34, 1982 Summer) p. 4-25.]

4. Lt. Col. D.J. Goodspeed, ed., The Armed Forces of Canada 1867-1967: A Century of Achievement (Ottawa: Canadian Forces Headquarters, Directorate of History; Queen's Printer, 1967) p. 245.

5. David W. Wainhouse, et al., International Peace Observation: A History and Forecast (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1966) p. 566.

6. Ibid., p. 564.

7. Henry L. Stimson, The Far Eastern Crisis: Recollections and Observations (N.Y.: Council on Foreign Relations, Harper, 1936) pp. 31 ff.

8. Louis Fischer, The Life of Mahatma Gandhi (N, Y,: Collier, 1969; orig. 1950) pp. 284-94.

9. This was a rather late development in Gandhi's thinking, as I have noted in another paper: Gene Keyes, "Nonviolent Common Defense: The Biography of an Idea" (Paper to be presented at Annual Meeting of Canadian Peace Research and Education Association, May 1978, London, Ontario.)

10. Gandhi, M.K., Nonviolence in Peace & War, Vol. I, 1962 ed., Mahadev Desai, ed. (Ahmedabad: Navajivan, 1962; orig. 1942) p. 117.

11. "Peace Army", folder of leaflets and bulletins of A. Maude Royden's attempt, in Great Britain document group at Swarthmore College Peace Collection.

12. "Turning Both Cheeks" (Manchester Guardian, February 27, 1932). Reprinted by The Peace Army, ibid.

13. "Peace Army", loc cit., n. 11 above.

14. "China-Japan: Shanghai Gestures" (Time, March 7, 1932) p. 21. Crozier was a general-turned-pacifist who had "sent his book, A Word to Gandhi, with a note, 'Mr. Gandhi will be surprised to fmd in a military man an admirer of his.'" Quoted in D.G. Tendulkar, Mahatma: Life of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, vol. III, 1930-1934 (Delhi: Government of India, Ministry of
PEACE & CHANGE, Vol. V, Nos. 2 & 3, Fall, 1978   p.9

Information and Broadcasting, Publications Div., 1961; orig. 1951) p. 116.

15. Henry Brinton, The Peace Army (London: Williams & Norgate, 1932) 88 pp. (Esp. chap. VII, pp. 71-78.)

16. Ibid., p. 73

17. Ibid., pp. 73-74.

18. "Send 10,000 Unarmed Men: MP Urges UN Peace Force for Arab-Israeli Border" (Peace News, April 13, 1956) pp. 1, 8.

19. "Does Whitehall Want Peace Army?" (Peace News, April 20, 1956) pp. 1, 6.

20. Acland, Sir Richard,.Waging Peace: The Positive Policy We Could Pursue if We Gave Up the H-Bomb (London: Frederick Muller, 1958) 161 pp.

21. Ibid., pp. 94-95

22-a) Michael Goldsmith, "Ben Bella's Regulars and Guerrillas Battle 75 Miles from Algiers" (Washington Post, September 2, 1962) p. 1. (Dateline Algiers, Sept. 1, AP.)

22-b) Andrew Borowiec, "Rivals Battle Two Hours in Casbah" (Washington Post, September 3, 1962) pp. 1, 19. (Dateline Algiers, Sept. 2, AP.)

22-c) Henry Tanner, "March on Algiers Halts" (New York Times, September 3, 1962) p. 5. (Dateline Boghari, Sept. 2.)

22-d) Sanche de Gramont, "Gunfire in Casbah" (New York Herald Tribune, September 3, 1962) p. 1. (Dateline Algiers.)

22-e) Alex Joannides, "Two Columns are Pushing on Algiers" (Washington Post, September 4, 1962) p. 1. (Dateline Algiers, Sept. 3, Reuters.)

22-f) "Ben Bella Orders Move on Algeria" (Chicago Daily News, September 4, 1962) p. 4. (Dateline Algiers, UP!.)

22-g) "No More Bloodshed" (Peace News, September 7, 1962) p. 1.

22-h) "Algeria: The One Day War" (Time, September 14, 1962) p. 37.

23. Adam Roberts, The Technique of Civil Resistance (Stockholm: Research Institute of Swedish National Defense, 1976) p. 94.

24. William Hinton, Hundred Day War: The Cultural Revolution at Tsinghua University (N.Y.: Monthly Review Press, 1972) 288 pp.

25. Ibid., pp. 152, 192, 208.

26. Ibid., p. 189.

27. Ibid., p. 191.

28. Ibid., p. 187.

29. Ibid., p. 187.

30. Ibid., p. 197.

31. Ibid., p. 202.

32. Ibid., p. 203.

33. Ibid., p. 204. Unfortunately, Hinton only mentions two of the "Five-Won'ts": "'When hit, don't hit back; when cursed, don't curse back.'" Gandhi would be proud.

34. Ibid., p. 209.

35. These ideas are traced in Keyes' thesis op. cit., n. 3 above.

36. Madariaga and Narayan, op. cit., n. 2 above.

37. Salvador de Madariaga, letter to me, April 1, 1969.

38. Madariaga and Narayan, op. cit., n. 2 above.

39. See n. 37 above.

40. Keyes, op. cit., n. 3 above. In that work, "Police Action" was used to discuss duties of UN peacekeeping forces and peace observers as we know them today, but which I do not describe as "Buffer Action" in the more drastic sense used here. Except for so-called "Model I" Observer teams, eachewing arms is not yet a deliberate policy and strategy of UN peacekeeping.

41. Keyes, op. cit., n. 3 above; and "Proposal for a Canadian Forces Rescue Command" (paper presented at Annual Meeting of Canadian Political Science Association, June 1977, Fredericton, New Brunswick)."

42. Commander Sir Stephen King-Hall, Common Sense in Defense (London: K-H Services Ltd., 1960) pp. 40-41.
PEACE & CHANGE, Vol. V, Nos. 2 & 3, Fall, 1978   p.10-11

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